Lymphatic filariasis , commonly known as elephantiasis called, is a neglected tropical diseases. Infection occurs when filarial parasite transmitted to humans by mosquitoes. Acquired infection in childhood causes hidden damage to the lymphatic system.
Painful and disfiguring deep visible manifestations of the disease , lymphedema , elephantiasis and scrotal swelling occur later in life and can lead to permanent disability . These patients not only with physical disabilities, but suffer from the psychological, social and financial losses contribute to stigma and poverty.
It is estimated that about 25 million people suffer from lymphedema suffer from genital diseases and more than 15 million people. Elimination of lymphatic filariasis can prevent unnecessary suffering and help reduce poverty .
Cause and transmission
Lymphatic filariasis is caused by infection with parasites classified as nematodes ( roundworms ) family Filariodidea. There are 3 types of filamentous nematodes :
Wuchereria bancrofti responsible 90% of cases ,
Brugia malayi, which causes most of the remaining cases ,
B. timori, which also causes the disease.
Adult worms lodge in the lymphatic system and disrupt the immune system. Worms can live an average of 6-8 years , and have in my life , produce millions of microfilariae (immature larvae) that circulate in the blood.
Mosquitoes become infected with microfilariae ingestion of blood when biting an infected host. Microfilariae mature into infective larvae in mosquito. When infected mosquitoes bite humans parasites mature larvae on the skin, where they can enter the body from the deposit . The larvae then lymphatics , where they develop into adult worms migrate , thus continuing the cycle of transmission.
Anopheles especially in rural areas , especially in endemic Aedes islands in the Pacific ; lymphatic filariasis transmitted widely used by various species of mosquitoes , such as Culex mosquitoes in urban and suburban areas .