Sunday, August 7, 2011

Malaria

Malaria mosquitoes infectious disease of man from simple eukaryotes causes type Plasmodium. It is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, including many sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and America. Malaria is widespread in these regions due to significant rainfall and consistently high temperatures. Warm, constant temperature and high humidity, combined with stagnant water where the larvae mature, provide conditions for mosquitoes to breed continuously required , the cause of disease is a unicellular, who discovered in 1880 by Alphonse Laveran, Charles Louis, while he served in the military hospital in Constantine, Algeria, he said, the parasites in a blood smear from a patient who [has just died of malaria. the result of breeding disease malaria parasite in red blood cells, leading to symptoms normally associated with high fever and headache and in severe cases may progress to coma and death.
Four species of Plasmodium can infect and be transmitted to humans. Severe disease is largely caused by Plasmodium tropical. Malaria Plasmodium three days, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae usually causes a milder disease that is rarely fatal. The fifth species, Plasmodium knowlesi is a zoonotic disease that causes malaria in monkeys, but can also infect humans.
Malaria transmission can be achieved by preventing mosquito bites through the distribution of inexpensive mosquito nets and mosquito or control measures such as spraying insecticides inside houses and draining standing water where mosquitoes lay their eggs fall. While many are still under development, the challenge is widely available vaccine, which provides a high level of protection for a longer period remains to be done.  Two drugs are also available for preventing malaria in travelers to malaria-endemic countries (prevention).
Various anti-malarial drugs are available. Were in the past five years, the treatment of infections in P. tropical endemic countries through the use of drug combinations with artemisinin derivatives has changed. Severe malaria with quinine intravenously or intramuscularly, or, more often, artemisinin derivatives artesunate , is better than quinine in children and adults. , multi-drug resistance has developed against malaria, particularly chloroquine. considered
Each year there are more than 225 million cases of malaria, , killing about 781,000 people each year to the World Health Organization 2010 Report of the World Malaria,  2.23% of deaths worldwide. Most child deaths in sub-Saharan Africa.  Ninety percent of malaria deaths occur in Africa south of Sahara. Malaria is commonly associated with poverty and in fact may be the cause of poverty  and a serious impediment to economic development.