Myocardial infarction (MI) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI), commonly referred to as a heart attack, stopping the blood supply of the heart, causing death of heart cells. Usually this is caused by occlusion (blockage) of coronary artery after rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques that an unstable collection of lipids (fats) and white blood cells (especially macrophages) in the artery wall. As a result of ischemia (restriction in blood supply) and oxygen shortage, if left untreated for a sufficient period of time can cause damage or death (infarction) of heart muscle (myocardium).
Classic symptoms of acute myocardial infarction include sudden chest pain (typically radiating to the left arm or left side of the neck), shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, palpitations, sweating, and anxiety (often described as a sense of impending doom). Women may be less typical symptoms than men, as a rule, shortness of breath, weakness, feeling of indigestion and fatigue. About a quarter of all heart attacks are "silent", without chest pain or other symptoms.
Found among the diagnostic tests available to damage the heart muscle, an electrocardiogram (ECG), various blood tests and echocardiography. The most commonly used markers creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) fraction and troponin values. Immediate treatment for suspected acute myocardial infarction includes oxygen, aspirin and nitroglycerin sublingually.
In most cases, STEMI (ST altitude MI) with thrombolysis or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) treatment. NSTEMI (ST-elevation not MI) should be treated with medication, although PCI is often performed during hospitalization. People who have multiple blockages and relatively stable, and in some emergency situations, bypass surgery may be an option.
Heart attack is the leading cause of death among men and women around the world. Important risk factors are previous cardiovascular disease, age, smoking, high blood levels of certain lipids (triglycerides, low density lipoprotein) and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity, chronic kidney disease heart failure, excessive drinking, abuse of certain drugs (such as cocaine and methamphetamine), and chronic high-voltage